BBC News - Immune upgrade gives 'HIV shielding'

backwardrevolution:

“Evolution? explores the destructive effect of pollution on the evolution of marine life. The watercolour pencil drawings show different sea creatures taking on characteristics of the surrounding waste. They are paired with diagrammatic pen drawings that demonstrate how these new organisms have formed beneath the surface. While these drawings may seem to depict surreal, fantastical beings I have used scientific imagery to indicate that the message behind them is very real. This highlights the urgent need to preserve our oceans or risk the consequences.”
Alexandra Grech, 2012, Art Express.
Influencing artists: Vipoo Srivilasa, Jenny Orchard, Walmor Corrêa(watch out it coockoos), Ernst Haeckel (zoologist)

backwardrevolution:

Evolution? explores the destructive effect of pollution on the evolution of marine life. The watercolour pencil drawings show different sea creatures taking on characteristics of the surrounding waste. They are paired with diagrammatic pen drawings that demonstrate how these new organisms have formed beneath the surface. While these drawings may seem to depict surreal, fantastical beings I have used scientific imagery to indicate that the message behind them is very real. This highlights the urgent need to preserve our oceans or risk the consequences.

Alexandra Grech, 2012, Art Express.

Influencing artists: Vipoo Srivilasa, Jenny Orchard, Walmor Corrêa(watch out it coockoos), Ernst Haeckel (zoologist)

(via The many yous in you – what Lydia Fairchild has in common with a sponge and an anemone | Not Exactly Rocket Science | Discover Magazine)

Vampyroteuthis infernalis (by neal69198)

(via SpringerImages - Electron density map for nickel corrin derivative (vitamin B12))

Growing concerns over ‘in the air’ transmission of Ebola

 By Matt McGrath Science reporter, BBC World Service Ebola virus The infection is thought to get into humans through close contact with bodily fluids Continue reading the main story Related Stories Fresh Ebola outbreak in Uganda Little chance for ebola vaccine Canadian scientists have shown that the deadliest form of the ebola virus could be transmitted by air between species. In experiments, they demonstrated that the virus was transmitted from pigs to monkeys without any direct contact between them. The researchers say they believe that limited airborne transmission might be contributing to the spread of the disease in some parts of Africa. They are concerned that pigs might be a natural host for the lethal infection. Continue reading the main story “Start Quote What we suspect is happening is large droplets - they can stay in the air, but not long, they don’t go far. But they can be absorbed in the airway” Dr Gary Kobinger Public Health Agency of Canada Ebola viruses cause fatal haemorrhagic fevers in humans and many other species of non human primates. Details of the research were published in the journal Scientific Reports. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the infection gets into humans through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs and other bodily fluids from a number of species including chimpanzees, gorillas and forest antelope. The fruit bat has long been considered the natural reservoir of the infection. But a growing body of experimental evidence suggests that pigs, both wild and domestic, could be a hidden source of Ebola Zaire - the most deadly form of the virus. Now, researchers from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the country’s Public Health Agency have shown that pigs infected with this form of Ebola can pass the disease on to macaques without any direct contact between the species. In their experiments, the pigs carrying the virus were housed in pens with the monkeys in close proximity but separated by a wire barrier. After eight days, some of the macaques were showing clinical signs typical of ebola and were euthanised. One possibility is that the monkeys became infected by inhaling large aerosol droplets produced from the respiratory tracts of the pigs. pigs could be a natural host Pigs could act as a host and amplify the Ebola virus One of the scientists involved is Dr Gary Kobinger from the National Microbiology Laboratory at the Public Health Agency of Canada. He told BBC News this was the most likely route of the infection. “What we suspect is happening is large droplets - they can stay in the air, but not long, they don’t go far,” he explained. “But they can be absorbed in the airway and this is how the infection starts, and this is what we think, because we saw a lot of evidence in the lungs of the non-human primates that the virus got in that way.” The scientists say that their findings could explain why some pig farmers in the Philippines had antibodies in their system for the presence of a different version of the infection called Ebola Reston. The farmers had not been involved in slaughtering the pigs and had no known contact with contaminated tissues. Dr Kobinger stresses that the transmission in the air is not similar to influenza or other infections. He points to the experience of most human outbreaks in Africa. “The reality is that they are contained and they remain local, if it was really an airborne virus like influenza is it would spread all over the place, and that’s not happening.” Hidden host The authors believe that more work needs to be done to clarify the role of wild and domestic pigs in spreading the virus. There have been anecdotal accounts of pigs dying at the start of human outbreaks. Dr Kobinger believes that if pigs do play a part, it could help contain the virus. “If they do play a role in human outbreaks it would be a very easy point to intervene” he said. “It would be easier to vaccinate pigs against Ebola than humans.” Ebola Uganda Workers prepare to disinfect during a recent Ebola outbreak in Uganda Other experts in the field were concerned about the idea that Ebola was susceptible to being transmitted by air even if the distance the virus could travel was limited. Dr Larry Zeitlin is the president of Mapp Biopharmaceuticals. “It’s an impressive study that not only raises questions about the reservoir of Ebola in the wild, but more importantly elevates concerns about ebola as a public health threat,” he told BBC News. “The thought of airborne transmission is pretty frightening.” At present, an outbreak of ebola in Uganda has killed at least two people near the capital Kampala. Last month, Uganda declared itself Ebola-free after an earlier outbreak of the disease killed at least sixteen people in the west of the country.

(Source: BBC)

加拿大科學家已經證實,伊波拉病毒可以藉由空氣,在不同物種間傳播。研究人表示,實驗證實,伊波拉病毒可以在完全沒有接觸下,直接透過空氣從豬隻傳染到猴子,但是病毒透過飛沫傳染,飛沫在空中的時間有限,懷疑病毒可能更細小的懸浮微粒,直接藉由空氣流通散播這個致命的疾病,提升了公共衛生的威脅。 研究人員把感染豬隻放在未健康猴子附近,當中有很明確的隔離使兩種動物無法直接接觸,八天後有些猴子感染了伊波拉病毒;研究人員懷疑是豬隻呼吸道所產生的懸浮微粒,藉著空氣傳播感染到猴子體內。 加拿大公衛署微生物實驗室柯彬格博士強調,飛沫雖能夠承載大量病菌,但在空中停留的時間不長,飄散的距離也不遠,所以認為病毒可能是透過懸浮微粒,在流通的空氣中擴散得更遠,這就是伊波拉病毒可以感染到非靈長類的肺部的原因。 研究人員也強調還有更多事情必須釐清,若伊波拉病毒在爆發疫情前,豬隻會先行感染死亡,對疫情的掌控將更為容易,並可以開發疫苗讓豬隻具免疫力,減少傳染給人類的機會。

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Electron density map of NaCl (via Geos 306, Fall 2012, Lecture 4, The Chemical Bond II)

Electron density map of NaCl (via Geos 306, Fall 2012, Lecture 4, The Chemical Bond II)